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1850

  • Letters re. ‘Steel Gun Barrels’ ‘The Times’, 2, 14 and 18/1/1850. G&J DEANE’s letter of 18/1/1850 referred to ‘our Mr Adams’
  • W H RITCHIE, of Ixelles, secures Belgian Patent #3789 /6868 0f 28/2/1850, for J R COOPER’s English Patent of 20/9/1849 (Bailey 1/10/1972)
  • Mass, Arms Co. incorporated 5/3/1850 (but see 1849). (Sellers & Smith, p90)
  • British ‘Committee on Small Arms’ reconstituted 24/4/1850, for service rifle experiments, (Roads, p 28). Experiments commenced 16/7/1850. (Roads, p39)
  • Building commenced for the Great Exhibition, London, 30/7/1850.
  • Committee on Small Arms calls for further arms for experiment. 26/8/1850. (Roads, p30)
  • J STEVENS US Patent #7802 of 26/11/1850, for improvements to Wesson & Leavitt revolver. (Sellers & Smith, pp91, 171)
  • Robbins & Lawrence introduce index milling machinery at Windsor, Vt.    (Rolt, p 59)
  • British exports £71 million and imports £100 million in this year. Deficit covered by insurance, banks, shipping etc. (Richards & Quick, p6)
  • List of Southwark iron founders in 1850. (Southwark Library 24/8/1972)
  • Florence ADAMS born, St Michaels Parish, Crooked Lane, London in this year? (1851 Census)
  • ‘Deane’s Defence etc’ published.
  • Deane, Dray & Deane directory listing as gas fitters and contractors, 3 Arthur Street East London Bridge, and as iron founders, agricultural implement, stove, grate and fender manufacturers, at Old Swan Lane and Swan Lane, Upper Thames Street. A stove, range, fire box iron fence and hurdle manufacturer listing was made for 119/120 Bunhill Row.
  • Geo. & John DEANE were listed as export iron mongers, Birmingham and Sheffield warehousemen and wholesale dealers in fancy goods, at 3 Arthur Street, west London Bridge. Their listing for 46 King William Street was similar to that for 1846, as was their saddler listing at 2 Arthur Street east London Bridge. However their gun maker listing at 30 King William Street now referred specifically to them as ‘Gun makers to HRH Prince Albert’.
  • S CRISPIN appointed Brevet 2nd Lt. of Ordnance. (Chamberlain 26/10/1972)
  • Catalogue of Royal Agricultural Society of England’s Show, Exeter, 1850, shows Stand no 87 for Henry Lowcock, of Raddon Court Farm, Thorverton, near Cullompton, Devon with (1) A Patent one–way plough, invented by Lowcock, and made by Ramsomes & May of Ipswich. (2) A patent one-way plough invented by Lowcock but made by Robert ADAMS of Compton Marldon, Devon; and (3) a Pair Horse Scarifier, invented by Robert ADANS, improved by Lowcock and manufactured by Robert ADAMS; and (4) a Horse Hoe invented by Lowcock and manufactured by Robert ADAMS and Thomas MILFORD, of Marldon and Thorverton. (Museum of English Rural Life 10/11/1972)
  • Edmund ADAMS was parish clerk at Kingskerswell in 1850. (Devon Library 28/11/1972)
  • Receipt, T W CARTER (Treasurer) to J T AMES, dated 15/1/1850 for $500 for 25 Mass. Arms Co. shares. (Chamberlain? 13/4/1976)
  • Benjamin COGSWELL started at 226 Strand, London. (PHAB)
  • London Proof House Revolver Pistols proved in this year 425 – House of Commons report 1854.

1851

  • R ADAMS’s English Patent #13527 of 24/2/1851.
  • Samuel COLT opens sales office and depot at 1 Spring Gardens, Cockspur Street, London, until 3/1855, managed by Charles Frederick DENNET. (PHAB - Cochran, p17)
  • Second series of British service rifle trails convened at Woolwich. 18/3/1851. (Roads, p31)
  • G & J DEANE gun makers partnership at 30 King William Street dissolved by consent 25/3/1851. Announced London Gazette 8/7/1851 under date 7/7/1851.
  • Great Exhibition opened in Hyde Park, 1/5/1851
  • ELEY Bros exhibited at Crystal Palace 1851.
  • 27/5/1851, Dr E MAYNARD’s U S Patent #8126, for a breech loading firearm made later at Chicopee Falls. (Winant, p118)
  • Fulham trails of self capping (?) Deane revolving pistol and Adams’s 1851 musket lock, 6/1851. (File note 12/7/1972)
  • 5/6/1851 The Admiralty asked the Board of Ordnance to procure some of Mr COLT’s repeating pistols for trial, Eight revolvers and flasks (£6/10/- each, Dragoons?) were purchased from Charles W LANCASTER (COLT’s agent?) (W.O. 47/2261 30/6/1851)
  • Samuel COLT v Mass. Arms Co. trial heard 30/6/1851. (The Gun Collector #41 p717 et seq) (Sellers & Smith, pp30/31, 92, 171)
  • 8/7/1851, Four of the eight Dragoons purchased from LANCASTER were sent to Admiral Sir T B CAPEL at Portsmouth to be tested by Capt CHAD on board HMS Excellent. (PRO Admiralty Letter Book, Military Branch, (Home Stations) Adm 2/1558) (Blackmore, p79)
  • (The remaining four were presumably tried out by the Army and three of them are in the Royal Armouries Collection at Leeds. (PHAB, 6/6/2011))
  • 7/1851, 25 Colt revolvers withdrawn from the Great Exhibition, to LANCASTER, for sale to officers of the 12th Lancers due to go to The Cape of Good Hope. (File note 29/7/1972) (The Revolver 1818-1865, p158)
  • 22/8/1851, Complete Specification to Robert ADAMS’s English Patent #13527 of 1851 filed and enrolled next day.
  • ADAMS’s patented revolver and gun lock referred to Ordnance Select Committee 1/9/1851, at order of Master General of Ordnance. (File note 29/7/1972)
  • 10/9/1851, COLT v ADAMS revolver trial at Woolwich. (The American Arms Collector, 7/1957) (File note 29/7/1972) Sears needle-gun also.
  • Blackmore, p80 says 11/9/1851, also quotes Mr COLT presenting a revolver after the trail to Lieutenant RAY of a company of Royal Sappers & miners due for embarkation. (PHAB)
  • J STEVENS’ U S Patent #8412 of 7/10/1851, for improvement to the Wesson & Leavitt revolver. (Sellers & Smith, p171)
  • 7/10/1851, R ADAMS secures Belgian Patent #5061/794, for revolvers. (Bailey 1/10/1972)
  • ‘Morning Chronicle’, 7/10/1851 reports on ADAMS and COLT revolver, (D, A & D broadsheet). Untraced source states further Woolwich trials 13 – 21/10/1851 and an Enfield trial prior 10/1851. (The Revolver 1818-1865, p78)
  • 15/10/1851, COLT wrote to Sir Charles TREVELYAN, Sec To Treasury, for permission to withdraw ‘ one rifle, two carbines, fifty pistols and 250 assorted pistols to present to various distinguished gentlemen and bodies’ (Blackmore, p80, Board of Customs Minute Book) (PHAB)
  • 16/10/1851, Letter from Master Generals Secretary to Sir Charles WOOD, - COLT informed Ordnance not prepared to purchase any of the present revolvers from the Exhibition due to the smallness of the Nipple and cap. (Blackmore, p80 (W.O.46/86)) (PHAB)
  • Presentation of COLT revolvers to important UK personages. List dated 29/10/1851. (J Rosa, Col Colt London, p195)
  • 22/10/1851, Friend and agent Charles MANBY, sec. to the Institution of Civil Engineers, obtained permission for COLT to examine old arms in the Tower Collection and use illustrations of them in his lecture to the Institute on 25/ 11/1851, (W.O.47/2273) (Blackmore, p81) (PHAB)
  • 20/11/1851, R ADAMS’s French Patent #12247.
  • Charles F DENNET becomes COLT’s London Agent. (PHAB)
  • 22/11/1851, Samuel COLT’s English Patent #13823.
  • 25/11/1851, Samuel COLT’s lecture to the Institution of Civil Engineers.
  • R ADAMS’s British Registered design #3033 of 28/11/1851, for a bullet to go with the ‘dustbin’ cartridge.
  • Louis NAPOLEON’s coup d’etat in France, 2/12/1851.
  • Further Woolwich tests of ADAMS’s revolver, 9/12/1851 (File note 29/7/1972)
  • Robbins & Lawrence awarded Great Exhibition medal for interchangeable rifle. (Rolt, p146) (Fitch Report) (American Rifleman 1/1970)
  • Henry ADAMS, 51 Grays Inn Lane, Holborn listed amongst London gun makers of 1851. (An Encyclopaedia of Rural Sports, D P Blaine, Longman 1852)
  • 1851 Census shows Henry ADAMS as a gun maker (employing one man), with his wife, at 51 Grays Inn Road, Holborn. (Ledger 7/10/1971)
  • Robert ADAMS (employing 22 men) and family at 30 King William Street in 1851 Census. (File note 8/11/1971)
  • Dalston Directory shows ‘Ivy Cottages’, Queens Road, Dalston but no mention of John ADAMS. (Rosa 24/9/1972)
  • Auguste FRANCOTTE admitted as Master to Gunsmiths Guild, Liege. (Journal of the Antique Arms Society 1967, p388)
  • London ‘revolver’ proof figures – 954. (The Revolver 1818-1865, p57)
  • U K exports 50% greater to the U S and imports double. Population 10.5 million, London 2.5 million. Annual U K revenue about £50 million (£28 million to National Dept; £16 million for Defence; £6 million for government and monarchy expenses) Electorate about 1 million; Army 120,000; Navy about 45,000 men with 300 ships. (Richards & Quick, p6)
  • Five colonies in British North America.
  • Five colonies in Australia, Population 405,000. Gold discovered at Ballarat, Bendigo and other places.
  • About 30,000 Europeans in New Zealand as settlers.
  • ‘Ivy Cottages’, Queens Road, Dalston NOT in 1851 Census Index (Shoreditch 13/11/1972) but J G Rosa recorded as lying between Brownlow Road and the beginnings of Queen’s Road. He listed D Sherman at No 11 Ivy Cottages; Valentine Ryan at No 12 (renumbered as 20); Mrs Grey at No 13 and Mrs Chamberlain at No 14. He also recorded ‘Adams’ at No 6 Mayfield Place, Dalston; C Adams at No 7 Bloomfield Street, N Dalston; John Adams at Brook Street, Clapton; J Adcock at No 4 Margate Villas, Shrubland Road; and G Birch, at Ivy Cottage, Morning Lane, Dalston.
  • No 2 Weston Street, Southwark was registered in the 1851 Census for Richard Hodgkin, Publican. (Rosa 28/11/1972)
  • Receipt, Springfield, 9/12/1851, Mass. Arms Co., signed by J H Carpenter for 5 revolving pistols. (Chamberlaln 13/4/1976)
  • Eley Bros. Factory moved from Bond Street to Golden Square. (Eley Brothers, 1828 -1928. J Pople-Crump. Guns Review, 3/1982)
  • Picture of Barnett’s revolver see 1857.
  • 14 St. Mary’s Row, Birmingham, Census shows:- James WEBLEY, (43), Gun maker 24 hands employed. Louisa, wife (36), Mary Anne, sister (41), Sarah Guest, house servant (22). (Gammell 19/5/1989)
  • William TRANTER listed at 98, New John Street West, (35), Gun maker, lodger, unmarried-1851 Census.
  • Frederick Thomas BAKER, 88, Fleet Street, London, (son of Thomas Kinslake BAKER?) (PHAB)
  • Samuel COLT leased 1 Spring Gardens, off Cockspur Street, Trafalgar Square, London 12/1851 for sales office and began negotiations for Vauxhall factory site. (Rosa, Col Colt London)

1852

  • British Board of Ordnance order 4/2/1852 for setting up M/1851 Minie rifles. W ADAMS tenders, but withdraws. (Roads, p34)
  • COLT given permission to export 450 of his revolvers left at the Exhibition building to his agent, Mr PEARD in South Africa. (Blackmore, p81) (PHAB)
  • COLT makes plans for London factory. Sets up Office and Showroom at 1, Spring Gardens and appoints Charles Frederick DENNET as manager. (Blackmore, p81) (PHAB)
  • COLT awarded the gold ‘TELFORD Medal’ by the I. C.E and made an Associate, the first American to become one. Medal inscribed - ‘Colonel Sam. Colt, Assoc. Inst. C. E.’ (Blackmore, p81) (Armsmear, p121) (PHAB)
  • Colt parts reach Liverpool and London, for instruction of workmen. Customs permission secured to import Colt arms into bond, for sale to officers, and also Colt machinery. 2/1852. (File note 29/7/1972)
  • 12 /4/1852 - ADAMS’ revolvers landed at New York? (W B Edwards, Story of Colt’s Revolver, pp292-297) (Chamberlain 18/5/1973). Dickerson noted them as infringing three claims of Colt’s 1836 U S Patent.
  • T K BAKER’s British Registered Design #3230 of 24/4/1852, for revolver rammer.
  • Samuel COLT gets go ahead for Bessborough Place factory site 1/5/1852 and took possession 1/6/1852. Men arrived from USA 13/10/1852. Rates paid until 5/1857 (Rosa, Col. Colt London)
  • 18/5/1852, #8,956, Marston & Goodell, US Cartridge patent. (Arms Heritage Mag 6/2014, PHAB)
  • Samuel COLT English Patent #13823 of 22/11/1851 lapsed through failure to file a Specification.
  • R ADAMS, 30 King William Street, British Registered Design #3277 of 1/6/1852, for ball and projectiles.
  • Letters re, Graham’s Town revolver trials. (File note 8/12/1972)
  • Deed of Assignment & License, dated 23/6/1852, in respect of a share in R ADAMS’s English Patent 13527/1851.
  • Letter 1/7/1852, from Birmingham Proof House to London Proof House. Ref. the latter’s practice of only proving revolver cylinders. Not barrels too. Minute records London Resolution to direct Proof Master not to prove cylinders unless they are accompanied by the barrels.
  • Letter 4/8/1852, William TRANTER to Wardens of London Proof House complaining about the resolution in July letter. He often supplies two cylinders with a revolver, is it sensible for him to have his men standing still because he can only send to proof the same number of revolvers bodies and cylinders?
  • Subsequent London Proof House Resolution (date uncertain) that Proof Master may prove two cylinders to one frame on the manufacturer’s written assurance that two cylinders are required for that frame. Letter to Tranter, 6/8/1852 accordingly.
  • 26/8/1852, London Proof House has letter from Deane & Co. relative to proving revolvers. ‘Understood that letter to Tranter was in effect communication to Deane and considered unnecessary at present to take further notice of the matter’.
  • 1/10/1852, R ADAMS’s British Patent #1 for ball cartridges.
  • Patent Law Amendment Act, 1852 operative from 1/10/1852 when British (not English, Scottish or Irish) patents become the rule.
  • Extract: Prior to 1852 there was no obligation on the part of the patentee to prove novelty. The Patent Office would take the money but not do the search so patents could be granted for items that were not unique. (Horological Journal 7/1986)
  • 2/10/1852, ‘Graham’s Town Journal’ reported Penetration test of COLT Navy against musket, at Hoek, the Colt went clean through 3/4” hardwood board and two eight fold blanket, the musket stopped at fourth fold of second blanket. (excerpt from pamphlet see Blackmore, p312) (PHAB)
  • Deane & Adams advise on new service rifle specification drawn up by Committee on Small Arms, 10/1852. (Roads, p56)
  • 16/11/1852, B COGSWELL’s British Registered Design #3389, for a revolver similar to the Wesson & Leavitt.
  • 17/11/1852 - Letter from COLT, in London, to Dickerson, in U S, ie, possibility that ADAMS’s lock frame infringed COLT’s English Patent. (Edwards, p301) (Chamberlain 6/6/19730)
  • Deane, Adams & Deane license of 16/11/1852 to A FRANCOTTE. (Ross Egles 15/10/1968)
  • and Pirlot Freres. (Chamberlain 31/1/1972)
  • R S RIPLEY marries Mrs Sparks, 22/12/1852. (Chamberlain 23/8/1971 and 28/8/1971)
  • ‘United States Gazette’, 25/12/1852 criticizes Adams’s revolver as tested at Graham’s Town.
  • Date of a R S RIPLEY Letter of resignation from U S Army 31/12/1852 (Chamberlain 25/8/1971)
  • British Committee on Small Arms reports 31/12/1852 on the prototype .577” rifles. (Roads, p57/58)
  • 50x target, without rest, with Adams’s revolver; Srgt Baker at Woolwich. (D, A & D broadsheet) Exact date unstated.
  • Robbins & Lawrence built Hartford rifle plant and contract to sell 20000 rifles to the Sharps Rifle Co.. The plant pledged as security, for performance, with option for the Sharps Co. to but it. (W. D. 33/10)
  • Improved Howe milling machines introduced by Robbins & Lawrence, Windsor, Vt. U S A (Rolt, p160)
  • Lower Burma finally annexed after war. New Zealand becomes self-governing.
  • Publication of ‘Report of Experiments carried on at the Royal Manufactory, Enfield, 1852’, re the replacement of the Model 1851 Minie rifle musket.
  • R S LAWRENCE becomes Master Armourer of the Sharps Rifle Mfg. Co.. (Dunlap, p80)
  • London revolver proof figures for 1852. (The Revolver 1818-1865, p79)
  • Supplement printed to the 1851 Great Exhibition Catalogue, containing D, A & D cutlery. (The Revolver 1818-1865, p79)
  • ‘The Expositor’, 25/12/1852. Deane, Adams & Deane advert as in Times Supplement, 9/12/1852. (Rosa 28/11/1972)
  • London Proof House Revolver Pistol Figures  - 6,121 for this year. House of Commons report.
  • William Powell & Son at 12 Carr’s Lane and 106 Broad Street, Islington (PHAB – Cochran)
  • Samuel COLT buys land on South Meadows to build largest private Armoury in the world. Starts enclosing it with a 3/4 mile dyke. (Armsmear, p307) (PHAB)

1853

  • Samuel COLT opens books 1/1/1853 at London factory, Bessborough Place, Thames Bank, Pimlico, and places adverts 6 and 21/1/1853, no pistols ready by 20/2/1853. Letter 9/6/1853, 1000 items ready for proof soon. (PHAB)
  • R ADAMS’s Scottish Patent, 18/1/1853. (G Boothroyd 25/5/1960)
  • W TRANTER’s British Patent #212 of 28/1/1853.
  • R S RIPLEY resigns from U S Army, 2/3/1853. (Chamberlain 15/12/1970)
  • Memorial speech says RIPLEY resigned in 1854 and engaged in ‘lucrative agency business’ that requiring European visits. (Chamberlain 27/2/1971)
  • Samuel COLT’s British Patent #535 of 3/3/1853. (Zig-Zag rotation) Expires 3/3/1867.
  • Samuel COLT’s British Patent #538 of 3/3/1853. (Cylinder on stud, new rammer, hinged frame) Expires 3/3/1867.
  • Both COLT’s Patents #536 and #537 voided due to want of Complete Specification.
  • 16/3/1853, Samuel COLT’s British Patent #654 for heating forges and annealing furnaces.
  • 20/3/1853, Letter from Samuel COLT presents Louis KOSSUTH with a pair of revolvers. (Armsmear, p347) (PHAB)
  • 27/3/1853, Letter from Louis KOSSUTH accepts pair of revolvers from Samuel COLT, (Hungarian Patriot). (Armsmear, p348)
  • London Proof House Minute, 31/3/1853 notes a letter from Deane, Adams, written by ADAMS, on the subject of COLT’s sales without proof.
  • Order from the House of Commons, dated 27/3/1853, requires London Proof House to provide a return of the number of guns, pistols and revolvers proved in each year for the past ten years. See also 1854.
  • Board of Ordnance orders on Deane, Adams 7 Deane, which include 22 revolvers begin 4/1853. (House of Commons 17/7/1971)
  • 9/4/1853, expiry of G STOCKER & James BENTLEY’s English Patent #8024 of 1839 for Pepperbox revolver.
  • 3/5/1853, R ADAMS’s U S Patent #9694 for the 1851 revolver.
  • 11/3/1853, ALVORD’s letter the day before about the visit to COLT’s factory of the Hungarian revolutionary, Louis KOSSUTH, to be presented with splendid pistol. (Rosa, Col. Colt London, p45) (PHAB)
  • 9/6/1853, Samuel COLT replies to accusation that he is selling guns out of proof. Reported to Gunmakers by Edward GOSNELL on 29/3/1853, that a Mr ADAMS had laid a complaint to that effect. (Rosa, Col Colt London p47) (PHAB)
  • Whitworth and Wallis visit U S A in the summer of 1853 to see New York Exhibition and US arms makers, including Springfield. (Timmins, pp296, 397)
  • Russians occupy Turkish Moldavia and Wallachia in 7/1853.
  • 16/7/1853, Samuel COLT British Patent #1703, for barrel boring lathes.
  • Initial British Board of Ordnance orders for M 1851 Minie rifle muskets filled by 7/1853. (Roads, p34)
  • Public hearings commence before the Springfield Armoury Commission, USA 4/8/1853. (Chamberlain 7/9/1971)
  • 20,000 rifles ordered by Board of Ordnance (of type eventually developed as M 1853 Enfields) 5/8/1853. Type of rifling to be settled later. (Roads, p59)
  • 9/8/1853, J STEVENS’ U S Patent #9929, for Improvements to the Wesson & Leavitt revolver.   (Sellers & Smith, pp95, 171)
  • Deane, Adams & Deane awarded a Bronze Medal (for a shotgun) at New York Crystal Palace Exhibition.
  • G STICKNEY secured British Patents #2039 and #2040 of 3/9/1853, for equivalents to Colt’s English Patents #536 and #537 and assigned them to COLT.
  • 6/10/1853, W E Newton, in Brussels, secures Belgian Patent #5166/2384, for William TRANTER’s British Patent #212 of 1853. (Bailey 1/10/1972)
  • 4/10/1853 Riots in Jerusalem create conditions for start of Crimean War next year. (PHAB)
  • Turkish counter attack, 10/1853 against Russian occupation of Moldavia and Wallachia. Later Russians attack Turkish fleet at Sinope, after British and French naval forces have passed the Dardanelles.
  • British Board of Ordnance Order O/411, 6/10/1853, covered Birmingham manufacture of components needed under the 20,000 rifle contract. William TRANTER and Deane, Adams & Deane had to supplement the efforts of the sight contractors. (Roads, p85)
  • Public hearings before the Springfield Armoury Commission end 1/11/1853. (Chamberlain 7/9/1971)
  • Robert ADAMS files Provisional Specification and receives British Patent #2712 of 22/11/1853.
  • 16/12/1853, William TRANTER’s British Patent #2921.
  • 21/12/1853, Lord Palmerston’s letter to Samuel COLT ref, tickets to visit Armoury. (Armsmear, p352) (PHAB)
  • London Proof House figures for year. (The Revolver 1818-1865)
  • British service inspection of U S manufacture of arms with interchangeable parts. (The Revolver 1818-1865)
  • (Probably not – see 1854 American Rifleman 1/1970)
  • Progress made by ‘Free Trade’ movement in U K. (Richards & Quick, p19)
  • G A TRENHOLM becomes senior partner in John FRASER & Co, at Charleston and Trenholm Bros. In New York. (Chamberlain 24/6/1971)
  • Samuel COLT petitions for the extension of his U S Master Patent of 1836. (File Note 29/7/1972)
  • Lefaucheux Pin Fire revolver introduced? (see Cuttat, for original D/A lock mechanism and J H JOHNSON’s British Patent of 1854 q.v.)
  • Note entries in Slater’s ‘Directory of Birmingham 1852-53 for:-
    • (a) Walter ADAMS (gun and pistol Manufacturer) at 11, Upper Priory, 11 Old Square, and Litchfield Street.
    • (b) Samuel ADAMS, #30 Court, Lancaster Street.
  • British Arms Purchasing Commission in the US. A Major RIPLEY involved. (Fitch Report, p5)
  • Ames Mfg. Co. commence manufacture of Blanchard/Buckland gun-stocking machines. British order for same. (Fitch Report, p170)
  • R S LAWRENCE moved from Windsor, Vt. To Hartford, Conn. to handle Robbins & Lawrence contracts for Sharps and Enfield arm. (Satterlee & Gluckman, pp,89, 136, 145 – see also 1852)
  • R HANGUET Belgian Patent of 14/4/1853 for a single action ‘gas seal’ percussion revolver identical(?) to the weapon marketed by Witton & Daw. (D W Bailey, phone 21/6/1982)
  • Advert cutting:- To Six shot Pistol filers – Wanted a steady man to file the actions of six shot Pistols. Apply to D BENTLEY, 55, Hockley Street, near St George’s Church. (Birmingham Journal 20/8/1853)
  • London Proof House figures for Revolver Pistols proved this year – 13,916, House of Commons report.